Overview of the Presidential Election Process
An election for President of the United States occurs every four years on Election Day, held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The 2016 Presidential election will be held on November 8, 2016.
The election process begins with the primary elections and caucuses and moves to nominating conventions, during which political parties each select a nominee to unite behind. The nominee also announces a Vice Presidential running mate at this time. The candidates then campaign across the country to explain their views and plans to voters and participate in debates with candidates from other parties.
During the general election, Americans head to the polls to cast their vote for President. But the tally of those votes—the popular vote—does not determine the winner. Instead, Presidential elections use the Electoral College. To win the election, a candidate must receive a majority of electoral votes. In the event no candidate receives the majority, the House of Representatives chooses the President and the Senate chooses the Vice President.
The Presidential election process follows a typical cycle:
- Spring of the year before an election – Candidates announce their intentions to run.
- Summer of the year before an election through spring of the election year – Primary and caucus debates take place.
- January to June of election year – States and parties hold primaries and caucuses.
- July to early September – Parties hold nominating conventions to choose their candidates.
- September and October – Candidates participate in Presidential debates.
- Early November – Election Day
- December – Electors cast their votes in the Electoral College.
- Early January of the next calendar year – Congress counts the electoral votes.
- January 20 – Inauguration Day
U.S. Constitutional Requirements for Presidential Candidates
The President must:
- Be a natural-born citizen of the United States
- Be at least 35 years old
- Have been a resident of the United States for 14 years
Any person who meets these requirements can declare his or her candidacy for President at any time. Candidates must register with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) once they receive contributions or make expenditures in excess of raise and spend funds on their behalf.
Presidential Primaries and Caucuses
Before the general election, most candidates for President go through a series of state primaries and caucuses. Though primaries and caucuses are run differently, they both serve the same purpose—to allow the states to help choose the political parties’ nominees for the general election.
- State primaries are run by state and local governments. Voting occurs through secret ballot.
- Caucuses are private meetings run by political parties. In most, participants divide themselves into groups according to the candidate they support, with undecided voters forming into a group of their own. Each group then gives speeches supporting its candidate and tries to persuade others to join its group. At the end of the caucus, party organizers count the voters in each candidate’s group and calculate how many delegates each candidate has won.
- Both primaries and caucuses can be conducted as “open,” “closed,” or some hybrid of the two.
- During an open primary or caucus, people can vote for a candidate of any political party.
- During a closed primary or caucus, participants must be registered with a political party to vote for one of its candidates.
- “Semi-open” and “semi-closed” primaries and caucuses are variations of the two main types.
At stake in each primary or caucus is a certain number of delegates, or individuals who represent their states at national party conventions. The candidate who receives a majority of his or her party’s delegates wins the nomination.
The parties have different numbers of total delegates due to the complex rules involved in awarding them (PDF, Download Adobe Reader). The requirements combine national and state political party rules and practices with aspects of federal and state election laws.
- In 2016, a Democratic candidate had to receive 2,383 of the estimated 4,765 delegates to become the party’s nominee. Democratic candidates must win at least 15 percent of the votes earned in a primary or caucus to receive any “pledged” delegates. Candidates generally receive pledged delegates on a proportional basis.
- The 2016 Republican candidate had to receive 1,237 of the estimated 2,472 delegates to win the party’s nomination. Depending on the state, delegates may be awarded proportionally, on a winner-take-all basis, or using a hybrid system. The percentage of primary or caucus votes a candidate must win to receive delegates varies from state to state.
Each party also has some unpledged delegates, or super delegates. These delegates are not bound to a specific candidate heading into the national convention.
When the primaries and caucuses are over, most political parties hold a national convention during which the winning candidate receives a nomination.
For information about your state’s Presidential primary or caucuses, contact your state election office or the political party of your choice.
The national conventions typically confirm the candidate who has already won the required number of delegates through the primaries and caucuses. However, if no candidate has received the majority of a party’s delegates, the convention becomes the stage for choosing that party’s Presidential nominee.
Delegates: Types and Numbers Required
Some parties require a specific number of delegates a candidate needs to win his or her party’s nomination in 2016. These included:
There are two main types of delegates:
- Pledged, or bound, delegates, who are required to support the candidate to whom they were awarded through the primary or caucus process
- Unpledged, or unbound delegates, or superdelegates, who are free to support any Presidential candidate of their choosing
Brokered and Contested Conventions
If no nominee has a party’s majority of delegates going into its convention, then the delegates pick their Presidential candidate in a brokered or contested convention. Pledged delegates usually have to vote for the candidate they were awarded to in the first round of voting, while unpledged delegates don’t. Pledged delegates may be allowed to choose any candidate in subsequent rounds of voting. Balloting continues until one nominee receives the required majority to win.
General Election Campaigning
General election campaigning begins after a single nominee is chosen from each political party, via primaries, caucuses, and national conventions. These candidates travel the country, explaining their views and plans to the general population and trying to win the support of potential voters. Rallies, debates, and advertising are a big part of general election campaigning.
Unlike in other U.S. elections, the President and Vice President are not elected directly by the people. Instead, they’re chosen by “electors” through a process called the Electoral College.
The idea of using electors comes from the Constitution. The nation’s founders saw it as a compromise between electing the President by a popular vote among citizens and electing the President in Congress.
The number of electors each state gets is determined by how many members of Congress (House and Senate) the state has. Including Washington, D.C.’s three electors, there are a total of 538 electors in all. U.S. territory residents don’t vote in the Presidential election and are not represented in the Electoral College. View the distribution of electors by state.
Each state’s political parties choose their own slate of potential electors. Who is chosen to be an elector, how, and when varies by state.
After you cast your ballot for President, your vote goes to a statewide tally. In 48 states and Washington, D.C., the winner gets all of the electoral votes for that state. This means his or her party’s electors in that state will vote in the Electoral College. Maine and Nebraska assign their electors using a proportional system called the Congressional District Method.
A candidate needs the vote of at least 270 electors—more than half—to win the Presidential election. For a very simple explanation of this process, check out this Kids.gov video.
Although the actual vote of the Electoral College takes place in each state between mid-November and mid-December, in most cases, a projected winner can be announced on election night.
The Constitution doesn’t require electors to vote according to the popular vote of the people they represent. But it’s rare for an elector not to follow the people’s—and their party’s—choice.
Winning the Popular Vote but Losing the Election
Though uncommon, it is possible to win the Electoral College, but lose the popular vote. That means that a candidate can win a combination of states and reach the 270 electors mark without winning the majority of votes across the country. This has happened four times in American elections, most recently in 2000.
What Happens if No Candidate Gets 270 Electoral Votes?
In the rare event that no candidate gets the needed 270 electoral votes, the decision would go to the House of Representatives, who would vote to elect the new President from among the top three candidates. A similar process would take place in the Senate to elect the Vice President from among the top two candidates. The only time this has happened was during the 1824 election when John Quincy Adams received the most votes in the House of Representatives after no candidate won a majority of the Electoral College.
How to Change the Electoral College
Because the Electoral College process is part of the U.S. Constitution, it would be necessary to pass a Constitutional amendment to change this system. For more information, contact your U.S. Senator or your U.S. Representative.
Inauguration Day occurs every four years on January 20 (or January 21 if January 20 falls on a Sunday) at the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, DC. On this federal holiday, the President-elect and Vice-President-elect are sworn in and take office.
The Vice-President-elect is sworn in first, and repeats the same oath of office, in use since 1884, as Senators, Representatives, and other federal employees:
“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter: So help me God.”
“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
The inauguration is planned by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Nine common activities typically occur:
- Morning Worship Service
- Procession to the Capitol
- Vice President’s Swearing-In Ceremony
- President’s Swearing-In Ceremony
- Inaugural Address
- Departure of the Outgoing President
- Inaugural Luncheon
- Inaugural Parade
- Inaugural Ball